COMING IN MAY 2020

Poulin Auctions is honored to offer the only complete date set of Charleston slave hire badges known (1800-1865), 146 badges in all! The legendary Harry S. Hutchins Jr. Collection includes the only examples known of several badges including 1804, 1808 & 1809

inv # 02-13438

The only two identified badges; one an 1815 Mechanic is engraved “Robt Cheevers, 251 East Bay” who was the slave working at that address. Charleston was a port of entry for over 60% of the Africans that came to America destined to become slaves. Today, evidence of their presence can be seen in their handiwork, in the bricks they made, in the iron they wrought & in the houses and buildings they built. The only city in America that issued slave hire badges was Charleston / Charleston Neck. These hire badges tell a story peculiar to Charleston, and tell a tale of slavery and not-slavery. Those who wore the badges often had a symbolic ticket to another way of life. Although these badges could not literally transport their wearers to geographic freedom, they could nevertheless unlock the power of metaphor and simile. Those wearing them could act AS IF they were free. For if a slave put on a badge, he or she could often act as his or her master, act as if he or she had control of his or her own destiny.

COMPLETE LISTING OF BADGES WITH MAKERS & CONDITION

1800 Fisher #14 Excellent condition and still folded on one edge as found. Badges issued the first two to three years were done at the maker’s shop. After paying the fee to the city, a piece of paper with occupation was taken to the maker. This was the 14th person issued a badge in 1800 and is the earliest badge known. Reverse marked by maker in stamped cartouche “ATMAR” Ht. 40.6mm. Wd. 40.3mm.

1800 Mechanic #275 very good condition. Stamped by maker on reverse “ATMAR”. Ht. 40.96mm, wd. 39.6mm.

1800 Mechanic #177 Good condition, crease across “M” Stamped by maker on reverse “ATMAR”.  Only 7-8 1800 Mechanics badges documented. Ht. 41 mm, wd. 40.2mm.

1801 Mechanic #27 Very good condition. 27th badge issued that year. Only two 1801 mechanics documented. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE” 48.5mm.

1802 Porter #116 punched date. Excellent condition. Only 1802 porter documented to date. Three 1801 porters have been documented to date. 1801 & 1802 porters were the largest badges measuring over 3½” (90mm). Later Prince had these 1801 & 1802 badges turned back to him and reused them for 1803’s & 1804’s. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. This practice ended in 1805. Ht. 90.5mm, wd. 88.7mm.

1803 Mechanic #137. Excellent condition. Made from 1802 badge with 1802 date trimmed off and 1803 added above. The number was also changed. Only two 1803 mechanics documented to date. This the best example known that so clearly shows alteration by Atmar reusing last year’s badge. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”.  48mm.

1803 Porter #480 Excellent condition. The 1803 has a stamped date. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE” Ht. 75.5mm, wd. 71.8mm.

1803 Servant #624 excellent restoration repairing center hole where badge made into child’s spinning toy after badge had expired for the year. Restoration by Robert McDaniel of Waterloo, AL who recolors surfaces to uniform smooth artificial patina. This 1803 has a stamped date. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE” Ht. 53.3mm, wd. 57.08mm.

1804 Porter #67. Good condition. This is the only known 1804 badge documented. 1804 badges were only sold between September and December 1804 due to 1805 badges would start January 1805. This badge was reused from 1801 Porter #296. The 296 engraved and the 67 punched. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht. 74.76mm, wd. 74.3mm.

1805 Mechanic #194. Excellent condition. One of 3 documented 1805 mechanics to date. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”.  Ht. 61.0mm, wd. 56.4mm.

1805 Porter #165. Very good condition. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”.  Ht. 64.4mm, wd. 55.8mm.

 

1805 Servant #342 Very good condition. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht. 59.9mm wd. 54.83.

1806 Porter #36 Very good condition in 2 pieces. Both halves a perfect match. Only badge where the slave who owned the badge signed on the front after #36 and before the Charleston “x”. Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. This badge also has a very crisp “6” in 1806. Ht. 66.5mm, wd. 56mm.

1806 Servant #4 Excellent restoration by Leonard Short from Christiansburg, Virginia to remove folds and “repatina”. This example ha an especially crisp “6” which is often poorly struck this year. A total of 861 badges were sold in 1806. On the other few examples found the wear on the 6 makes it look like 1800.  Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht.61.6mm, wd. 55.65mm.

1807 Servant #20. Excellent condition. Only 557 badges made in 1807, and only five 1807 badges are documented. The engraver of the number left upper and lower guide-lines. Prince we know paid a professional engraver to place the individual numbers on his badges. . Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht. 64.8mm, wd. 56.8mm.

1808 Servant. Bottom half only of badge which only 342 were sold and only one other example is known and it is a servant also with stamped number. The missing top section would have shown the number and “Charleston”. This half is in excellent condition & shows what the “1808” date die looks like. Reverse has makers cartouche stamped “C. PRINCE” wd. 57.73mm.

1809 Servant #9 Excellent condition. Only 302 1809 badges made. Only two 1809 badges documented to date and both represented in this collection. . Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht. 56mm, wd. 54.24mm.

1809 Servant #64. Very good condition. Found in an old fire pit on a plantation outside of Charleston. One of only two 1809 badges found and documented. . Marked on reverse in stamped cartouche “C PRINCE”. Ht. 55.9mm, wd. 52.7mm.

1810 Fisher #24 Excellent condition. 656 badges were contracted from Lafar in 1810 and his first year making badges. One of only three 1810 fishers documented to date. Marked on reverse in stamped “LAFAR” The LAFAR stamp for 1810 & 1811 is smaller than the LAFAR stamps for 1812 – 1828. Ht. 54.9mm, wd. 52.5mm.

1810 Porter #167 Very good condition. A couple of holes and creases but still a unique badge. Marked on reverse in stamped “LAFAR” The LAFAR stamp for 1810 & 1811 is smaller than the LAFAR stamps for 1812 – 1828. Ht. 51.72mm, wd. 51.28mm.

1811 Carpenter #27. Very good condition. Only 1811 carpenter known and only six carpenters of any date known. Of the six documented to date, four are 1813’s; one is 1807 and this one, 1811. Ht. 51.5mm, wd. 50.4mm.

 

1811 Servant #180. Very good-excellent condition. This year every badge is a little different due to the hand cut round corners by the maker, Lafar. This unique design was only used this year. The three 1811 badges in collection represent about 25% of these all 1811s documented     Ht. 52.4mm, wd. 50.0mm.

1811 Servant #39. Very good-excellent condition. Ht. 51.0mm, wd. 48.8mm.

1812 Servant #104. Excellent Restoration by Leonard Short. There are less than 10 documented 1812 badges surviving of the 1100 made. Ht. 62.8mm, wd. 61.25mm.

1812 Servant #426. Excellent condition. Ht. 63.8mm, wd. 62.2mm.

1813 Porter #86. Excellent condition. Ht. 51.2mm, wd. 49.2mm.

1813 Servant #12. Excellent condition. Ht. 53.6mm, wd. 50.66mm.

1814 Servant #718. Excellent condition. Ht. 50.75mm, wd. 48.7mm.

1814 Porter #78. Excellent condition. Ht. 51.7mm, wd. 49.6mm.

1815 Mechanic #56. Excellent condition. This is a one-of-a-kind badge that slave inscribed his name: Robert Cheever, and his place of work: Patrick M Gamm’s Silversmith & Watch repair on 251 E. Bay Street. This location was right next to the place, City Hall, end of Broad Street, where they issued badges. Ht.51.4mm, wd. 51.8mm.

1816 Mechanic #39. Excellent condition. Patina added. Ht. 50.5mm, wd. 49.5mm.

1817 Servant #121. Very good – Excellent condition. One small hole in the first “1” of “121” but does not detract from the badge. Ht. 50.5mm, wd. 49.6mm.

1817 Porter #51. Excellent condition. Restored & patina added by Robert McDaniel. Ht. & wd. 50.5mm.

1818 Mechanic #248. Excellent condition. Restored & patina added by Leonard Short. Ht. 53.3mm, wd. 54.1mm.

1818 Mechanic #94. Excellent condition. Ht. 52.3mm, 51.2mm.

1819 Servant #728. Excellent condition. Ht. 57mm, wd. 55.25mm.

1819 Porter #525. Very good condition. Two small holes due to heavy punch of the maker. 54.8mm.

1820 Porter #375. Excellent condition. Patina added. Ht. 54.5mm, wd. 52.67mm.

1820 Servant #160. Excellent condition. Ht. 54mm, wd. 52.8mm.

1821 Fruiterer & Etc. #48. Excellent condition. Only two fruiterers documented from 1821 Ht. 52.6mm, wd. 52mm.

1822 Porter #705 Excellent condition. Ht. 55mm, wd. 51mm.

1822 Servant #1048. Very good. Restored bend & patina. Ht. & wd. approx. 53mm.

1822 Servant #1006. Very good. Small holes in punched identification no. 1006.

1823 Servant #229. Excellent condition. First year stamped on front at bottom “J J LAFAR”.  Ht. 55mm, wd. 52.3mm.

1823 Fisher #88. Very good to excellent condition. Bend & patina restored. Ht. 51.7mm, wd. 53mm.

1824 Porter #469. Stamped on front at bottom “LAFAR”. Excellent condition. Ht. 53mm, wd. 51.5mm.

1825 Porter #754. Stamped on front at bottom “LAFAR”. Very good condition. Creases. Ht. 52.7mm, wd. 51.7mm.

1825 Servant #1052. Excellent condition. Ht. 52.3mm, wd. 52mm.

1825 Mechanic #179. Very good to excellent condition. Ht. & wd. 52.5mm.

1826 Mechanic #336 Excellent condition. Ht. 52.8mm, wd. 52mm.

1827 Servant #646. Excellent condition. Ht. & wd. approx. 51.5mm.

1828 Servant #136. Excellent condition. Ht. 53.25mm, wd. 51.7mm.

1828 Servant #758. Very good condition. Ht. 53.9mm, 52.2mm.

1828 Servant #918. This was the last year “LAFAR” stamped his badges. Excellent condition. Ht. 53.9mm, wd. 52.2mm.

1829 Servant #1308. Excellent condition. Maker LAFAR. Ht. 54.4mm, wd. 52.5mm.

1830 Servant #1531. Excellent condition. Maker LAFAR.  Ht. 51.3mm, 51.7mm.

1831 Servant #939. Excellent condition. Maker LAFAR.  Ht. 52mm, wd. 52.4mm.

1832 Servant #855. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. Ht. 52.5mm, wd. 49.4mm.

1832 Servant #1994. Very good condition. Small hole at end of date. Maker Mood. Ht. 52.5mm, wd. 49.4mm.

1832 Porter #216. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. Ht. 57.5mm, wd. 51.5mm.

1833 Servant #685. Excellent condition. Maker LAFAR. 51.7mm.

1833 Servant #16. Very good – excellent condition. Maker LAFAR. 4 Holes made by slave to be sewn in clothing most likely. Crack-crease near hole. 50.5mm x 52.2mm.

1834 Porter #652 Excellent condition. May have not been in the ground. Maker LAFAR. Ht. 51.8mm, wd. 51.7mm.

1834 Servant # 1464. Excellent condition. Maker LAFAR. Ht. 51.7mm, wd. 51.1mm.

 

1835 Servant #1654. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. Ht. 55mm, wd. 51.5mm.

1836 Servant #531. Very good – excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 52.5mm, wd. 49mm.

1836 Porter #58. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 48mm, wd. 48.3mm.

1837 Porter #318. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44.5mm x 44.5mm.

1837 Mechanic #426. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 45.5mm x 45.5mm.

1837 Servant #310. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  44.1mm x 44.4mm.

1837 Servant #1092. Very good – excellent. Came out of the ground shiny. Maker Rouse.  44.7mm x 45.3mm.

1838 Servant #2233. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 46.5mm x 44.9mm.

1838 Mechanic #289. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 46.7mm x 45.0mm.

1838 Porter #758. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 45.3mm x 45.8mm.

1839 Servant #1698. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 43.9mm x 45.8mm.

1840 Porter #148. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44.0mm x 43.7mm.

1841 Porter #136. Very good condition. Found on property & verified wearer by owners will: Boy Sam. Maker Mood. 45mm x 46.8mm.

1841 Servant #641. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 45mm x 45.9mm.

1842 Fisher #46. Excellent condition. Only 1842 Rouse Fishers. Only 3 other documented Rouse fisher found. Maker Rouse. 44.8mm x 45.4mm.

1843 Porter #1080. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44.5mm x 44.5mm.

1844 Porter #337. Restored due to heavy oxidation. Badge found in Cooks building on the washing side. Maker Rouse. 46.6mm x 43.0mm.

1844 Fruiterer & etc. #80. Excellent condition. Patina applied. Maker Mood. 44.5mm x 43.0mm.

1844 Fruiterer & etc. #102. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. 45.7mm x 45.7mm.

1844 Servant #2150. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. 44.1mm x 46.5mm.

1844 Servant #1322. Excellent condition. Maker Mood. 44mm x 43mm.

1845 Servant #1083. Excellent condition – Maker Rouse very good. 43.9mm x 44.6mm.

1845 Servant #1784. Excellent condition – Maker Rouse very good. 44mm x 43.8mm.

1845 Porter #625. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44mm x 44.9mm.

1846 Servant #1512. Very good condition. Flattened and cleaned by jeweler – cut on side. Maker Rouse. 44.7mm x 44.3mm.

1846 Mechanic #392. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44mm x 43.3mm.

1847 Porter #618. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44.1mm x 43.3mm.

1847 Porter #3. Excellent condition. Found on property & verified wearer by owner’s will, “Boy Sam”. Maker Rouse. 42.5mm x 45.5mm.

1847 Servant #2164. Very good condition. Maker Rouse. 44.4mm x 43.7mm.

1848 Porter #270. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 43.6mm x 41.5mm.

1848 Servant #2136. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 44.4mm x 43.3mm.

1848 Servant C.N. #433 Excellent condition. CN in Charleston Neck. Deveaux –Maker. All letters and numbers hand punched. 45.7mm x 45.5mm

1848 Porter C.N. #70. Excellent condition. Attempted cut on right side 1/3 but never completed. Maker  Deveaux. Ht. 51mm, wd. 52mm.

1848 Porter C.N. #230. Excellent condition. Note smaller size than the #70 porter badge. Also servant C. N. badge of different sizes. Maker Deveaux. 44mm.

1849 Servant #1083. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  40mm.

1849 Servant (Charleston Neck) #184. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  40mm.

1849 Porter (Charleston Neck) #277. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  40mm.

1850 Servant #262. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  40mm.

1850 Porter #75. Excellent condition. Repaired – Unbent & patina added. Maker Rouse.  40mm.

1851 Porter #892. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 39mm.

1851 Servant #1343. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse.  39mm.

1852 Porter #505. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 39.6mm.

1852 Dog Badge #297. Excellent condition. Brass badge. There are only 6 dog badges known, all made between 1850 – 1865. Interesting note, Rouse who was contracted to make these was paid 13 cents for dog badges but only 2.5 cents for slave badges. Ht. & wd. 27mm x 51.5mm.

1852 Servant #243. Very good condition. Maker Rouse. 39.6mm.

1853 Mechanic #171. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 39mm, wd. 40mm.

1854 Porter #973. Very good condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 38mm, wd. 40mm.

1854 Servant #831. Good condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 38mm, wd. 40mm.

1854 Porter #918. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 38mm, wd. 40mm.

1855 Porter #69. Excellent condition. Small date. Maker O’Connor. Ht. 37.3mm, wd. 41mm.

1855 Porter #406. Excellent condition. Small date. Maker O’Connor. Ht. & wd. 38mm.

1855 Porter #523. Very good condition. Large date. Maker O’Connor. Ht. 35mm, wd. 40mm.

1855 Porter #1066. Excellent condition. Large date. Maker O’Connor. Ht. 38mm, wd. 39mm.

1856 Servant #1093. Very good condition. Maker Veronee. 40mm x 40.9mm.

1856 Porter #844. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 39.2mm x 41.8mm.

1856 Servant #1254. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 40.5mm x 40.8mm.

1857 Servant #2010. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 39mm, wd. 40mm.

1857 Porter #137. Very good condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 39mm, wd. 40mm.

1858 Mechanic #450. Excellent condition. Largest # documented of a mechanic badge. Maker Rouse. Ht. 38mm, wd. 40mm.

1858 Mechanic #142. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 40mm, wd. 40mm.

1858 Porter #1414. Excellent condition. Largest # documented of Porter badge. Maker Rouse. 39.7mm x 40.2mm.

1858 Servant #63. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. & wd. 40mm.

1859 Porter #990. Good condition. Missing small part of badge at top near hole. Maker Veronee. Ht. 37mm, wd. 35mm.

1859 Porter #232. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. Ht. 37mm, wd. 35mm.

1859 Servant #448. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. Ht. 37mm, wd. 35mm.

1860 Mechanic #176. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 37.8mm x 36.9mm.

1860 Porter #1377. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 34.8mm x 37.5mm.

1860 Servant #2938. Highest # servant ever found documented. Very good chance bought in June – July 1861 by a Free Person of Color in order not to be harassed by police. See story in book page 153. Maker Rouse. Ht. 36.5mm, wd. 36.8mm.

1861 Servant #1907. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. Ht. 35mm, wd. 38mm.

1861 Fruiterer #77. Excellent condition. Crease remains after unfolded. Maker Rouse. Ht. 36mm, wd. 37mm.

1861 Mechanic #281. Excellent condition. Maker Rouse. 36.4mm x 36mm.

1861 Servant #1577. Excellent condition. Unfolded & patina applied. Maker Rouse. 35.5mm x 37mm.

1862 Servant #846. Excellent Condition.  38mm x 37.5mm.

1862 Servant #1241. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. Ht. 36mm, wd. 38mm.

1862 Servant #1618. Excellent condition. 37.9mm x 39.6mm.

1862 Servant # 1327. Excellent condition. 36.4mm x 35.9mm.

1863 Servant #672. Very good condition. Maker Veronee.  Ht. 35mm, wd. 36.5mm.

1862/1863, Porter/Servant, #988/#92. Excellent condition. Repaired – unfolded & patina applied. Maker Veronee. 38.8mm x 40.3mm.

1862/1863, Porter/Servant, #1128/#44 Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. Ht. 37mm, wd. 39mm.

1862/1863, Porter/Servant, #1107/#176 Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. Ht. 37mm, wd. 39mm.

1864 Porter #99. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 35.3mm x 35.8mm.

1864 Porter #336. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 36mm x 35.4mm.

1864 Servant #58. Excellent condition. Maker Veronee. 35.7mm x 35.8mm.

1860/1864/1865, Fruiterer/Mechanic/Porter, #?/#?6/24. Triple Stamp – Excellent condition. One of only two documented triple stamped. One of four documented 1865. Less than 100 1865 issued. Maker Rouse & Veronee.  Ht. 37.5mm, wd. 37mm.